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Scientific Background

Analysis of correlation between the 6 GC Signatures and 5 stomach cancer subtypes

Genes expressed in the samples of approximately 500 stomach cancer patients were categorized into the subtypes including Inflammatory, Intestinal, Intestinal with stem feature, Gastric and Stem-like in accordance with the molecular characteristics of stomach cancer, and 965 subtype-specific genes were selected.

In addition, 6 signatures (Immune, Stromal, Stemness, Proliferative, Gastric and Intestinal) that can represent the biological characteristics of each of the molecular subtypes of stomach cancer were found by analyzing the genes expressed for each of the subtypes.

Biological characteristics for each of the subtypes were found by analyzing the correlation between the 5 molecular subtypes and 6 Signatures by using Spearman correlation analysis method, and 186 genes that can represent this were screened. (Red color signifies high correlation between the module and subtype while blue color signifies low correlation.)

Biological characteristics for each of the 5 molecular subtypes of stomach cancer

When the biological characteristics for each of the 5 molecular subtypes of stomach cancer are analyzed with 6 signatures, inflammatory group with relatively good prognosis and having the characteristics of immune signature and stem-like group with relatively bad prognosis and having the characteristics of stem-like signature and stromal signature were confirmed.

GC Subtype Characteristics
Inflammatory immunoregulatory system associated subtype
Intestinal intestinal epithelial markers high-expression subtype
Intestinal with stem feature Wnt and TGF signaling pathways with intestinal epithelial differentiation associated subtype
Gastric gastric markers, with the digestion associated subtype
Stem-like Wnt signaling and mesenchymal genes associated subtype

Selection of genes for prediction of prognosis

Among the 186 genes selected in the above process, 28 genes and 5 reference genes that display stable expression results in accordance with the sampling method (Fresh Frozen, FFPE), expression measurement platform (microarray, qPCR) and location of core that represents heteroplasia of cancer were selected.

Good prognosis was displayed if the immune signature observed in immune related cells is high while bad prognosis was displayed if stromal signature observed in stromal cell is high.

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